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Hallen, Barry. 2009. A Short History of African Philosophy. 2nd rev. ed. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. 
Janz, Bruce. 2009. Philosophy in an African Place. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books.
Makanjuola, Roger. 2012. Water Must Flow Uphill. Ibadan, Nigeria: Mosuro.
Masolo, D. A. 2010. Self and Community in a Changing World. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Olupona, Jacob K. 2011. City of 201 Gods: Ile-Ife in Time, Space and the Imagination. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Procesi, Lidia and Kasereka Kavwahireji, eds. 2012. Beyond the Lines: Fabien Eboussi Boulaga, a Philosophical Practice. Munich: Lincom Europa.
Taiwo, Olufemi, 2009. How Colonialism Preempted Modernity in Africa. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.




Abimbola, Kola. 2005. Yoruba Culture: A Philosophical Account. Birmingham,UK: Iroko Academic Publishers.
Abimbola,’Wande. 1975. Sixteen Great Poems of Ifa. Niamey, Niger: UNESCO.
———. 1976. Ifa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
———. 1977. Ifa Divination Poetry. New York: NOK.
———. 1997. Ifa Will Mend Our Broken World. Roxbury, Mass.: Aim Books.
Abimbola, ’Wande, and Barry Hallen. 1993. “Secrecy (‘Awo’) and Objectivity inthe Methodology and Literature of Ifa Divination.” In Secrecy: African ArtThat Conceals and Reveals, ed. M. Nooter, 212–21. New York: Museumfor African Art; Munich: Prestel.
Abraham, W. E. 1962. The Mind of Africa. Chicago: University of ChicagoPress.
———. 1996. “The Life and Times of Anton Wilhelm Amo, the First African(Black) Philosopher in Europe.” In African Intellectual Heritage: A Bookof Sources, ed. Molefi K. Asante and Abu S. Abarry, 424–40. Philadelphia:Temple University Press. (First published in Transactions of the HistoricalSociety of Ghana 2, no. 1 [1963].)
———. 2004. “Anton Wilhelm Amo.” In A Companion to African Philosophy,ed. Kwasi Wiredu, 191–99. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell.
Adeofe, Leke. 2004. “Personal Identity in African Metaphysics.” In AfricanPhilosophy: New and Traditional Perspectives, ed. Lee M. Brown, 69–83.Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ake, Claude. 1981. A Political Economy of Africa. New York: Longman.
———. 1993. “The Unique Case of African Democracy.” International Affairs69, no. 2.
———. 1996. Democracy and Development in Africa. Washington, D.C.:Brookings Institution.
Amadiume, Ifi. 1987. Male Daughters, Female Husbands: Gender and Sex in anAfrican Society. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Zed Books.
———. 1997. Reinventing Africa: Matriarchy, Religion and Culture. London:Zed Books.
———. 2000a. Afrikan Matriarchal Foundations: The Igbo Case. Trenton, N.J.:Red Sea.
———. 2000b. Daughters of the Goddess, Daughters of Imperialism: AfricanWomen Struggle for Culture, Power and Democracy. London: Zed Books.
———. 2008. “African Women’s Body Images in Postcolonial Discourse andResistance to Neo-Crusaders.” In Black Womanood: Images, Icons, and Ideologies of the African Body, ed. Barbara Thompson. Seattle: Universityof Washington Press.
Amin, Samir. 1989. Eurocentrism. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony. 1981. “Structuralist Criticism and African Fiction: AnAnalytic Critique.” Black American Literature Forum 15, no. 4 (Winter):165–74.
———. 1984a. “An Aesthetics for Adornment in Some African Cultures.” In Beauty by Design: The Aesthetics of African Adornment, 15–19. New York:African-American Institute.
———. 1984b. “Strictures on Structures: On Structuralism and African Fiction.”In Black Literature and Literary Theory, ed. Henry Louis Gates Jr., 127–50.London: Methuen.
———. 1986a. “Deconstruction and the Philosophy of Language.” Diacritics(Spring): 49–64.
———. 1986b. “Are We Ethnic? The Theory and Practice of AmericanPluralism.” Black American Literature Forum 20 (Spring–Summer):209–24.
———. 1986c. “The Uncompleted Argument: Du Bois and the Illusion of Race.”In Race, Writing and Difference, ed. Henry Louis Gates Jr., 21–37. Chicago:University of Chicago Press.
———. 1986–87. “Racism and Moral Pollution.” Philosophical Forum 18, nos.2–3 (Winter–Spring): 185–202. (Reprinted in Collective Responsibility: FiveDecades of Debate in Theoretical and Applied Ethics, ed. Larry May andStacey Hoffman, 219–38. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 1991.)
———. 1987. “Old Gods, New Worlds: Some Recent Work in the Philosophy ofAfrican Traditional Religion.” In Contemporary Philosophy: A New Survey,vol. 5, ed. Guttorm Floistad, 207–34. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
———. 1988. “Out of Africa: Topologies of Nativism.” Yale Journal of Criticism2, no. 1: 153–78. (Revised and reprinted in The Bounds of Race, ed.Dominic LaCapra, 134–63. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1991.)
———. 1989a. “The Conservation of ‘Race.’“ Black American Literature Forum23 (Spring): 37–60.
———. 1989b. “Race.” In Critical Terms for Literary Study, ed. FrankLentricchia and Tom McLaughlin, 274–87. Chicago: University of ChicagoPress.
———. 1990a. “Racisms.” In Anatomy of Racism, ed. David Goldberg, 3–17.(Reprinted in Introduction to Philosophy: Classical and ContemporaryReadings, 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.)
———. 1990b. “Alexander Crummell and the Invention of Africa.”Massachusetts Review 31, no. 3 (Autumn): 385–406.
———. 1990c. “But would that still be me? Notes on Gender, ‘Race,’ Ethnicityas Sources of Identity.” Journal of Philosophy 87, no. 10 (Oct.): 493–99.(Reprinted in Race, Sex: Their Sameness, Difference and Interplay, ed.Naomi Zack, 75–81. New York: Routledge, 1997.)
———. 1990d. “New Literatures, New Theory?” Mtatu 7 Canonization andTeaching of African Literatures, ed. Raoul Granquist, 57–90. Amsterdam:Rodopi.
———. 1991a. “Is the ‘Post’ in ‘Postcolonial’ the ‘Post’ in ‘Postmodern’?”Critical Inquiry 17 (Winter): 336–57.
———. 1991b. “Soyinka’s Myth of an African World.” In CrisscrossingBoundaries in African Literatures, ed. Ken Harrow, Jonathan Ngate, andClarisse Zimra, 11–24. Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press andAfrican Literature Association.
———. 1992a. In My Father’s House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture.Oxford: Oxford University Press.
———. 1992b. “Inventing an African Practice in Philosophy: EpistemologicalIssues.” In The Surreptitious Speech: Presence Africaine and the Politics ofOtherness 1947–1987, ed. V. Y. Mudimbe, 227–37. Chicago: University ofChicago Press.
———. 1992c. “Social Forces, ‘Natural’ Kinds.” In Exploitation and Exclusion:Race and Class in Contemporary US Society, ed. Abebe Zegeye, LeonardHarris, and Julia Maxted, 1–13. Oxford: Hans Zell.
———. 1992d. “African Identities.” In Constructions identitaires: questionnementstheoriques et etudes de cas. Actes du Celat 6 (May). Universite Laval,Canada: CELAT.
———. 1992–93. “African-American Philosophy?” Philosophical Forum 24,nos. 1–3 (Fall–Spring): 1–24. (Reprinted in African-American PhilosophicalPerspectives and Philosophical Traditions, ed. John Pittman, 11–34. NewYork: Routledge, 1997.)
———. 1993. “Thick Translation.” Callaloo 16, no. 4 (Fall): 808–19.
———. 1994a. “Myth, Literature and the African World.” In Wole Soyinka:An Appraisal, ed. Adewale Maja-Pearce, 98–115. London: Heinemann.
———. 1994b. “Identity, Authenticity, Survival: Multicultural Societies andSocial Reproduction.” In Multiculturalism: Examining “The Politicsof Recognition,” ed. Amy Gutman, 149–64. Princeton, N.J.: PrincetonUniversity Press.
———. 1994–95. “Ancestral Voices.” In Salmagundi 104–105 (Fall–Winter):88–100. (Reprinted in The New Salmagundi Reader, ed. Robert Boyers andPeggy Boyers, 122–34. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1996.)
———. 1995a. “Philosophy and Necessary Questions.” In Readings in AfricanPhilosophy: An Akan Collection, ed. Safro Kwame, 1–22. Washington,D.C.: University Press of America.
———. 1995b. “Why Africa? Why Art?” In Africa: The Art of a Continent, ed.Tom Phillips, 21–26. London: Royal Academy.
———. 1996a. “Culture, Subculture, Multiculturalism: EducationalConsequences.” In Public Education in a Multicultural Society, ed. RobertFullenwider, 65–89. New York: Cambridge University Press.
———. 1996b. “Against National Culture.” English in Africa 23, no. 1 (May): 11–27. (Reprinted in Text and Nation, ed. Peter Pfeiffer and Laura Garcia-Moreno, 175–90. Columbia, S.C.: Camden House, 1996.)
———. 1996c. “Race, Culture, Identity: Misunderstood Connections.” TheTanner Lectures on Human Values. Vol. 17, 51–136. Salt Lake City:University of Utah Press.
———. 1996d. “Reconstructing Racial Identities.” Research in AfricanLiteratures 27, no. 3 (Fall): 58–72.
———. 1997a. “Identity: Political not Cultural.” In Field Work: Sites in Literaryand Cultural Studies, ed. Marjorie Garber, Rebecca L. Walkowitz, and PaulB. Franklin, 34–40. New York: Routledge.
———. 1997b. “Liberalism and the Plurality of Identity.” In Knowledge, Identityand Curriculum Transformation in Africa, ed. N. Cloete, M. W. Makgoba,and D. Ekong, 79–99. Johannesburg: Maskew Miller Longman.
———. 1998a. “The Arts of Africa.” In Ideas Matter: Essays in Honour ofConor Cruise O’Brien, ed. Richard English and Joseph Morrison Skelly,251–64. Dublin: Poolbeg.
———. 1998b. “The Limits of Pluralism.” In Multiculturalism and AmericanDemocracy, ed. Arthur M. Melzer, Jerry Weinberger, and M. RichardZinman, 37–54. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.
———. 1998c. “Race, Pluralism and Afrocentricity.” Journal of Blacks in HigherEducation 19 (Spring): 116–18.
———. 1998d. “Ethnophilosophy and Its Critics.” In The African PhilosophyReader, ed. P. H. Coetzee and A. J. P. Roux, 109–30. London: Routledge.
———. 1998e. “Afterword: How Shall We Live as Many?” In Beyond Pluralism:The Conception of Groups and Group Identities in America, ed. WendyKatkin, Ned Landsman, and Andrew Tyree, 243–59. Urbana: University ofIllinois Press.
———. 2000. “Liberty, Individuality and Identity.” Critical Inquiry 27 (Winter):305–32.
———. 2001a. “African Identities.” In Race and Racism, ed. Bernard Boxill.New York: Oxford University Press.
———. 2001b. “Ethnic Identity as a Political Resource.” In Explorations inAfrican Political Thought: Identity. Community, Ethics, ed. Teodros Kiros,45–54. New York: Routledge.
———. 2004a. “African Philosophy and African Literature.” In A Companion toAfrican Philosophy, ed. Kwasi Wiredu, 538–48. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell.
———. 2004b. “Akan and Euro-American Concepts of the Person.” In AfricanPhilosophy: New and Traditional Perspectives, ed. Lee M. Brown, 21–34.Oxford: Oxford University Press.
———. 2004c. “Language, Race, and the Legacies of the British Empire.” InBlack Experience and the Empire, ed. Philip D. Morgan and Sean Hawkins.New York: Oxford University Press.———. 2005. “African Studies and the Concept of Knowledge.” In Knowledge Cultures: Comparative Western and African Epistemology, ed. BertHamminga, 23–56. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
———. 2006a. “How to Decide if Races Exist.” Proceedings of the AristotelianSociety 106 (May): 363–80.
———. 2006b. “The Politics of Identity.” Daedalus 135, no. 4 (Fall): 15–22.
———. 2007. Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers. New York:W.W. Norton & Co.
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Asante, Molefi K. 2000. The Egyptian Philosophers: Ancient African Voicesfrom Imhotep to Akhenaten. Chicago: African American Images.
———. 2007. An Afrocentric Manifesto. Stafford BC, Australia: Polity.
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Bedu-Addo, J. T. 1979a. “On the Alleged Abandonment of the Good in thePhaedo.Apeiron 13: 104–14.

———. 1979b. “The Role of the Hypothetical Method in the Phaedo.Phronesis 24, no. 2: 111–32.

———. 1983. “Sense-Experience and Recollection in Plato’s Meno.AmericanJournal of Philology 104, no. 3: 228–48.
———. 1985. “Wiredu on Truth as Opinion and the Akan Language.” InPhilosophy in Africa: Trends and Perspectives, ed. P. Bodunrin, 68–90.Ife, Nigeria: University of Ife Press.
———. 1991. “Sense-Experience and the Argument for Recollection in Plato’s Phaedo.” Phronesis 36, no. 1: 27–60. 
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———. 1991. The Archaeological and Documentary Evidence. Vol. 2 of Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization. New Brunswick,N.J.: Rutgers University Press.
———. 2001. Black Athena Writes Back: Martin Bernal Responds to His Critics.Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
———. 2006. The Linguistic Evidence. Vol. 3 of Black Athena: The AfroasiaticRoots of Classical Civilization. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. 
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———. 1972c. “On an African Orientation in Philosophy.” Second Order 1, no. 2: 3–13.
———. 1972d. “Material Implication and ‘If-Then.’“ International LogicReview (Dec.).
———. 1973a. “Deducibility and Inferability.” Mind n.s. 82, no. 325: 31–55.
———. 1973b. “Logic and Ontology, Part 1.” Second Order 2, no. 1: 71–82.
———. 1973c. “Philosophy, Mysticism and Rationality.” Universitas (Mar.).
———. 1973d. “On the Real Logical Structure of Lewis’ ‘Independent Proof.’“Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 14, no. 4 (Oct.): 543–46.
———. 1973e. “Logic and Ontology, Part 2.” Second Order 2, no. 2: 21–38.
———. 1974a. “To Be Is to Be Known.” Legon Journal of the Humanities 1.
———. 1974b. “What Is Philosophy?” Universitas 3, no. 2 (Mar.).
———. 1974c. “Carnap on Iterated Modalities.” Philosophy andPhenomenological Research 35, no. 2: 240–45.
———. 1974d. “Classes and Sets.” Logique et Analyse (Jan.).
———. 1974e. “A Remark on a Certain Consequence of Connexive Logic for Zermelo’s Set Theory.” Studia Logica 33, no. 2.
———. 1974f. “Logic and Ontology, Part 3.” Second Order 3, no. 2.
———. 1975a. “In Praise of Utopianism.” Thought and Practice 2, no. 2.
———. 1975b. “Logic and Ontology, Part 4.” Second Order 4, no. 1: 25–43.
———. 1975c. “Truth as a Logical Constant, with an Application to the Principle of Excluded Middle.” Philosophical Quarterly 25, no. 101:305–17.
———. 1976a. “Predication and Abstract Entities.” Legon Journal of the Humanities 2.
———. 1976b. “On the Formal Character of Logic.” Ghana Social ScienceJournal (May).
———. 1976c. “On Reductio ad Absurdum Proofs.” International Logic Review(June).
———. 1976d. “Paradoxes.” Second Order 5, no. 2: 3–26.
———. 1976e. “In Behalf of Opinion.” Universitas (Nov.).
———. 1976f. “How Not to Compare African Thought with Western Thought.”Ch’Indaba no. 2 (July–Dec.): 4–8. (Reprinted in African Philosophy: An Introduction, ed. R. Wright, 159–71. Washington, D.C.: University Press ofAmerica, 1977; and in African Philosophy: Selected Readings, ed. Albert G.Mosley. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1995.)
———. 1980a. “Philosophy and Our Culture.” Proceedings of the Ghana Academy of Arts and Sciences.
———. 1980b. Philosophy and an African Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
———. 1981. “Philosophy in Africa Today.” In Into the 80’s: The Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Conference of the Canadian Association of African Studies, ed. D. Ray, P. Shinnie, and D. Williams. Calgary: University ofCalgary, Tantalus Research.
———. 1983a. “The Akan Concept of Mind.” Ibadan Journal of Humanistic Studies. (Reprinted in African Philosophy. Vol. 5 of ContemporaryPhilosophy: A New Survey, ed. G. Floistad. Dodrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987.)
———. 1983b. “Morality and Religion in Akan Thought.” In Philosophy and Cultures, ed. H. Odera Oruka and D. Masolo, 6–13. Nairobi, Kenya:Bookwise. (Reprinted in African-American Humanism: An Anthology,ed. Norm Allen Jr. New York: Prometheus Books, 1991.)
———. 1984a. “Philosophical Research and Teaching in Africa: SomeSuggestions.” In Teaching and Research in Philosophy: Africa. Paris:UNESCO.
———. 1984b. “Survey: Philosophy Teaching and Research in English-SpeakingAfrica.” In Teaching and Research in Philosophy: Africa. Paris: UNESCO.
———. 1984c. “Some Issues in Philosophy in Africa Today.” In Teaching and Research in Philosophy: Africa. Paris: UNESCO.
———. 1985a. “The Concept of Truth in the Akan Language.” In Philosophy in Africa: Trends and Perspectives, ed. P. Bodunrin, 43–54. Ife, Nigeria:University of Ife Press.
———. 1985b. “Replies to Critics.” In Philosophy in Africa: Trends andPerspectives, ed. P. Bodunrin, 91–102. Ife, Nigeria: University of Ife Press.
———. 1985c. “Problems in Africa’s Self-Identification in the ContemporaryWorld.” In Africa and the Problem of Its Identity, ed. A. Diemer and P. Hountondji. New York: Verlag Peter Lang.
———. 1989. “Death and the Afterlife in African Culture.” In Death andDying: Cross-Cultural and Multi-Disciplinary Views, ed. A. Berger et al.Philadelphia: Charles Press.
———. 1990a. “On the Question of the Right to Die: An African View.” In To Die or Not to Die? Cross-Disciplinary, Cultural, and Legal Perspectiveson the Right to Choose Death, ed. Arthur S. Berger and Joyce Berger. NewYork: Praeger.
———. 1990b. “An Akan Perspective on Human Rights.” In Human Rights in Africa: Cross-Cultural Perspectives, ed. A. Ahmed An-Na’im and F. Deng.Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.
———. 1990c. “Universalism and Particularism in Religion from an African Perspective.” Journal of Humanism and Ethical Religion 3, no. 1. (Reprinted in Self, Cosmos, God, ed. D. Kolak and R. Martin. New YorkHarcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1992.)
———. 1991. “On Defining African Philosophy.” In African Philosophy: TheEssential Readings, ed. T. Serequeberhan, 87–110. New York: ParagonHouse. (Reprinted in Postkoloniales Philosophieren: Afrika, edited by H. Nagl-Docekal and F. M. Wimmer, 40–62. Vienna: R. OldenbourgVerlag, 1992.)
———. 1992a. “Formulating Modern Thought in African Languages: Some Theoretical Considerations.” In The Surreptitious Speech: Presence Africaine and the Politics of Otherness 1947–1987, ed. V. Y. Mudimbe, 301–32. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
———. 1992b. “Moral Foundations of African Culture.” In African-American Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics, ed. H. E. Flack and E. D. Pellegrino.Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. (Reprinted in Person andCommunity, ed. Kwasi Wiredu and Kwame Gyekye, 193–206. Washington,D.C.: Council for Research in Values and Philosophy, 1992.)
———. 1992c. “The African Concept of Personhood.” In African-American Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics, ed. H. E. Flack and E. D. Pellegrino.Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
———. 1992d. “Science, Technology and Humane Values.” In Paths to Philosophical Perspectives. Seoul: Korean PhilosophicalAssociation.
———. 1992–1993. “African Philosophical Tradition: A Case Study of theAkan.” Philosophical Forum 24, nos. 1–3: 35–62.
———. 1993. “Canons of Conceptualization.” Monist 76, no. 4: 450–76.
———. 1995a. “Are There Cultural Universals?” Monist 78, no. 1: 52–64. (An earlier version of this paper was published in 1990 in Quest: PhilosophicalDiscussions 4, no. 2: 5–19.)
———. 1995b. Conceptual Decolonization in African Philosophy: Four Essaysby Kwasi Wiredu. Introd. and ed. Olusegun Oladipo. Ibadan, Nigeria: Hope Publications.
———. 1995c. “Knowledge, Truth and Fallibility.” In The Concept ofKnowledge, ed. I. Kucuradi and R. S. Cohen. Boston: Kluwer Academic.
———. 1995d. “Metaphysics in Africa.” In A Companion to Metaphysics, ed.J. Kim and E. Sosa. Oxford: Blackwell.
———. 1995e. “Democracy and Consensus in Traditional African Politics:A Plea for a Non-Party Polity.” Centennial Review 39, no. 1 (Winter).
———. 1995f. “Custom and Morality: A Comparative Analysis of Some African and Western Conceptions of Morals.” In African Philosophy: SelectedReadings, ed. Albert G. Mosley. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
———. 1995g. “On Decolonizing African Religions.” In Decolonizing the Mind: Proceedings of the Colloquium Held at Unisa, October 1995, ed.J. Malherbe. Pretoria: Research Unit for African Philosophy.
———. 1995h. “Philosophy, Humankind and the Environment.” In Philosophy of Nature and Environmental Ethics. Vol. 1 of Philosophy, Humanityand Ecology, ed. H. Odera Oruka. Nairobi, Kenya: African Center for Technology Studies Press.
———. 1995i. “Philosophy and the Political Problem of Human Rights.” In The Idea and the Documents of Human Rights, ed. I. Kucuradi. Ankara,Turkey: Philosophical Society of Turkey.
———. 1995j. “Particularistic Studies of African Philosophies as an Aid toDecolonization.” In Decolonizing the Mind: Proceedings of the Colloquium Held at Unisa, October 1995, ed. J. Malherbe. Pretoria: Research Unit forAfrican Philosophy.
———. 1995k. “On Decolonizing African Religions.” In Decolonizing the Mind: Proceedings of the Colloquium Held at Unisa, October 1995, ed. J. Malherbe. Pretoria: Research Unit for African Philosophy.
———. 1996a. “Time and African Thought.” In Time and Temporality in Intercultural Perspectives, ed. D. Tiemersma and A. F. Oosterling. Amsterdam